The first anabolic steroid that was effectively produced was testosterone. A fast-acting, short-ester, oil-based testosterone injectable molecule called testosterone propionate is frequently administered to treat male hypogonadism, or low testosterone levels, and its numerous symptoms.
In order to prolong the therapeutic benefits of synthetic testosterone by delaying its absorption into the bloodstream, testosterone propionate was initially proposed in 1935. Two years later, Schering AG in Germany made it available for therapeutic usage. It was sold under the trade name Testoviron and combined with testosterone enanthate. Prior to 1960, this type of testosterone dominated the market for prescription medications in the United States and was also the first one that was commercially available there.
The main androgen present in the human body is testosterone. Testicular, ovarian, and adrenal cortex cells all produce endogenous testosterone. The management of congenital or acquired hypogonadism involves the use of testosterone therapeutically. For postmenopausal women with breast cancer, testosterone is the most effective exogenous androgen for palliative care. 1938 saw the FDA approve testosterone for use, and 1939 saw its first use. Because of their past illegal use, anabolic steroids—which are testosterone derivatives—are now considered controlled substances. In 1991, testosterone, along with a number of anabolic steroids, received a restricted drug designation. Regular and delayed-release (depot) dose versions of testosterone are both injected intravenously. In September 1995, the FDA initially approved testosterone transdermal patches (Androderm); many transdermal forms and brands are now available including implants, gels, and topical solutions. A testosterone buccal system, Striant, was FDA approved in July 2003; the system is a mucoadhesive product that adheres to the buccal mucosa and provides a controlled and sustained release of testosterone. In May 2014, the FDA approved an intranasal gel formulation (Natesto). A transdermal patch (Intrinsa) for hormone replacement in women is under investigation; the daily dosages used in women are much lower than for products used in males. The FDA ruled in late 2004 that it would delay the approval of Intrinsa women’s testosterone patch and has required more data regarding safety, especially in relation to cardiovascular and breast health.
The Propionate Ester: An ester is any of a class of organic compounds that react with water to produce alcohols and organic or inorganic acids. Most esters are derived from carboxylic acids, and injectable testosterone is typically administered along with one or multiple esters. The addition of a carbon chain (ester) attached to the testosterone molecule controls how soluble it will be once it’s inside the bloodstream. The larger the carbon chain, the longer the ester, and the less soluble the medication; a large/long ester will have a longer half-life. The inverse is true of short carbon chains, like the propionate ester, which acts rapidly upon the body and evacuates the body at a similar rate. With a three-carbon chain, the testosterone ester possesses the shortest half life of all testosterone esters at 4 days.